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Table 2 Summary of antibiotic resistance profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from samples of seawater, fish, and shellfish in Korea

From: Food-borne outbreaks, distributions, virulence, and antibiotic resistance profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Korea from 2003 to 2016: a review

Samples Number of isolates Virulence genes (%) Resistant (%)a References
Site (year) Type (number) Antimicrobials used Three or more of antimicrobials
Water
 Fish farms in south coast (2004) Seawater (60) 145 AM (98.0), OA (30.6), AN (26.5), AMC (20.4), TE (12.2), CIP (6.1), D (4.1), CEP (2.0), CTX and SXT (0.0) 15.2 (22/145) Son et al. 2005
 Coast in Geoje, Tongyeong, and Goseong (2005) Brackish water (27) 177 tdh (13), trh (0) AM (85.9), RA (26.6), AN (16.4), S (13.6), TMP (13.0), E (3.4), GM (1.1), AMC, TE, CIP, CEP, CTX, SXT, C, and NA (0.0) 20.3 (36/177) Oh et al. 2009
 West coast (2006) Seawater (22) 21 AM (100), CF (85.7), AN (81.0), FOX (38.1), GM (9.5), AMC (4.8), CIP, CTX, SXT, and C (0.0) Lee et al. 2009
 Shellfish farms in Gomso Bay (2008) Seawater (−) 28 tdh (0), trh (0) Lee and Park 2010
 Shellfish farms in Wando Coast (2011–2012) Seawater (−) 67 tdh (0), trh(0) AM (100), OX (100), VA (64.2), S (56.7), AN (31.3), K (22.4) CF (20.9), E (10.4), CIP (4.5), TE (3.0), SXT, TMP, GM, C, and NA (0.0) 88.1 (59/67) Kim et al. 2014
 Shellfish farms in south coast (2013–2015) Seawater (429) 37 tdh (0), trh (0 Park et al. 2016
 Shellfish farms in Gomso Bay (2014–2015) Seawater (100) 79 tdh (0), trh (0) OX (100), VA (100), P (100), AM (96.2), E (10.1), S (7.6), FOX (6.3), AN (2.5), CF (2.5), TE, CIP, CEP, CTX, SXT, RA, TMP, GM, C, NA, K, CTT, and CZ (0.0) 100 (79/79) Kim et al. 2016b
Fish
 Fish farms in south coast (2004) Fish (66) 49 AM (97.9), OA (24.1), AN (17.2), TE (4.8), D (4.1), CIP (2.8), AMC (1.4), CTX and SXT (0.7), CEP (0.0) 38.8 (16/49) Son et al. 2005
 Fish farms in south coast (2005–2007) Fish (180) 218 tdh (5.5), trh (0.5) AM (57.8), RA (11.9), S (8.7), TMP (6.4), TE and C (3.7), AN and NA (2.8), GM (1.8), CEP and SXT (1.4), CTX and E (0.9), CIP (0.5), AMC (0.0) 10.1 (22/218) Oh et al. 2011
Shellfish
 Shellfish farms in Geoje and Tongyeong Coast (2011) Oyster (40) 129 tdh (0), trh (0) AM (79.1), TMP (3.1), S (1.6), CTX, SXT, RA, GM, and NA (0.8), AN, AMC, TE, CIP, CEP, E, and C (0.0) 1.6 (2/129) Yu et al. 2014
 Shellfish farms in Gomso Bay (2011) Short neck clam (40) 307 tdh (0), trh (0) AM (61.0), TMP (5.2), S (2.9), RA (2.3), GM and NA (1.0), C (0.3), AN, AMC, TE, CIP, CEP, CTX, SXT, and E (0.0) 3.6 (11/307) Yu et al. 2014
 Shellfish farms in south coast (2013–2015) Shellfish (481) 84 tdh (2.4), trh (9.5) Park et al. 2016
 Shellfish farms in Incheon Coast (2014) Oyster (15) 71 tdh (0.0), trh (53.5) AM (100), S (50.7), CF (52.2), RA (50.7), GM (2.9), E (15.5), CIP (2.8), TE, CEP, CTX, SXT, C, and NA (0.0) 87.3 (62/71) Kang et al. 2016
 Shellfish farms in Incheon Coast (2014–2015) Oyster (96) 115 tdh (0.0), trh (9.6) AM (94.8), S (60.0), CF (53.9), RA (47.8), E (13.9), GM (7.0), CIP (4.4), CEP(3.5), NA (1.7), TE (0.9), K (0.4), CTX, SXT, C, and CTT (0.0) 46.1 (53/115) Kim et al. 2016a
 Shellfish farms in Incheon Coast (2015) Oyster (16) 44 tdh (0.0), trh (9.1) AM (86.4), S (75.0), CF (56.8), RA (43.2), GM (13.6), E (11.4), CIP (6.8), NA (4.5), TE (2.3), CEP, CTX, SXT, and C (0.0) 77.3 (25/44) Kang et al. 2017
Other
 Seafood markets in Busan and Gyeong Nam (2004) Seafood (213) 65 AM (96.9), AN (29.2), TE (27.7), CTX (9.2), AMC, CIP, CEP, and SXT (0.0) Kim et al. 2005
 Coast and seafood markets in Kyunggi and Incheon Seawater (281) Fish and shellfish (685) 716 VA(97.3), AM (87.3), CF (48.8), RA (46.1), E (28.7), NA(16.5), TE (13.5), CTX, SXT, GM, C, K, and NN (< 10) 68.7 (492/716) Han et al. 2012
 Geoje Coast (2016) Zooplank-ton (14) Seawater (14) 24 6 tdh (0.0), trh (0.0) tdh (0.0), trh (0.0) AM (100), PIP (90.0), RA (73.3), CF (73.4), CZ (66.7), TMP (10), AN (6.7), CIP and SXT (3.3), TE, AMC, CEP, CTX, S, GM, C, NA, and CTT (0.0) 93.3 (28/30) Yang et al. 2017
  1. AM ampicillin, OA oxolinic acid, AN amikacin, AMC amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, TE tetracycline, CIP ciprofloxacin, D doxycycline, CEP cefepime, CTX cefotaxime, SXT sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, RA rifampin, S streptomycin, TMP trimethoprim, E erythromycin, GM gentamicin, C chloramphenicol, NA nalidixic acid, CF cephalothin, FOX cefoxitin, OX oxacillin, VA vancomycin, K kanamycin, P penicillin, CTT cefotetan, CZ cefazolin, NN tobramycin, PIP piperacillin
  2. aResistance was classified according to guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)