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Table 1 Formulation and proximate composition of the eight experimental diets for red seabream (%, dry matter basis)

From: Effects of taurine supplementation in low fish meal diets for red seabream (Pagrus major) in low water temperature season

  HFM HFM-T SM20 SM20-T SM35 SM35-T SM50 SM50-T
Chile fish meal 45.00 45.00 36.00 36.00 29.25 29.25 22.50 22.50
Soybean meal 0.00 0.00 13.00 13.00 23.03 23.03 33.00 33.00
Corn gluten meal 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
WGM1 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00
Wheat flour 22.00 22.00 16.90 16.90 13.41 13.41 10.07 10.07
Fish oil 4.50 4.50 4.90 4.90 5.20 5.20 5.50 5.50
Soybean oil 4.50 4.50 4.90 4.90 5.20 5.20 5.50 5.50
Mineral mix2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Vitamin mix3 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Cellulose 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00
Choline chloride 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Starch 2.50 2.50 1.90 1.90 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00
Lysine 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.15 0.20 0.20 0.25 0.25
Methionine 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.15 0.20 0.20
Threonine 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.08
Taurine 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00
DCP4 0.00 0.00 0.60 0.60 1.00 1.00 1.40 1.40
Chemical composition (% dry matter)
 Moisture 6.15 6.10 6.48 6.43 6.78 6.73 7.08 7.03
 Protein 48.4 48.2 48.7 48.5 48.9 48.7 48.6 48.6
 Lipid 15.1 15.3 15.4 15.4 15.6 15.3 15.7 15.6
 Ash 9.71 9.84 9.36 9.47 9.21 9.24 8.96 8.74
  1. 1Wheat gluten meal
  2. 2 Mineral premix (g kg−1 of mixture): MgSO4.7H2O, 80.0; NaH2PO4.2H2O, 370.0; KCl, 130.0; Ferric citrate, 40.0; ZnSO4.7H2O, 20.0; Ca-lactate, 356.5; CuCl, 0.2; AlCl3. 6H2O, 0.15; Na2Se2O3, 0.01; MnSO4.H2O, 2.0; CoCl2.6H2O, 1.0
  3. 3Vitamin premix (g kg−1 of mixture): L-ascorbic acid, 121.2; DL-α tocopheryl acetate, 18.8; thiamin hydrochloride, 2.7; riboflavin, 9.1; pyridoxine hydrochloride, 1.8; niacin, 36.4; Ca-D-pantothenate, 12.7; myo-inositol, 181.8; D-biotin, 0.27; folic acid, 0.68; p-aminobezoic acid, 18.2; menadione, 1.8; retinyl acetate, 0.73; cholecalficerol, 0.003; cyanocobalamin, 0.003
  4. 4Di-calcium phosphate