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Table 1 Main behavioral criteria of Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii prelarvae assessed in this study

From: Ontogenetic behavior of farm-bred Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) prelarvae in a diel photoperiodic cycle: behavioral modifications in response to light intensity

Behavioral criteria Behavioral characteristics in tank
Negative geotaxis and drifting behavior Upward movement toward water surface by active propelling of the posterior body trunk and tail, and then passive settlement to the bottom; prelarvae rest on their side or yolk sac before active swimming-up starts again
Pelagic swimming Swimming at water surface or upper water column for a long time in a certain direction
Benthic swimming Free swimming for a short or long distance along the bottom of the tank, without displaying other behavioral types
Early corner-gathering Approaching the corner(s) of the tank; hatchlings and early prelarvae gather and aggregate loosely into a “school-like” appearance at the corner(s)
Rheotactic schooling Aggregation of large number of positively rheotactic prelarvae into a school-shaped group on the bottom of the tank; prelarvae swim against water current with active propelling movement
Non-rheotactic schooling Dense aggregation of large number of prelarvae into schools, usually at the corner(s) of the tank where no significant water current exists; prelarvae approach the center of the corner with active propelling of posterior body trunk and tail
Post-schooling behavior Non-locomotory, inactive, being dispersed or scattered over the bottom of the tank; prelarvae represent a sign of the initiation of the post-schooling behavior as a slow-wagging motion without locomotory activity
  1. Behavioral criteria were compiled from previous literatures with Acipenser species (Gisbert and Ruban 2003; Gisbert and Solovyev 2018; Gisbert et al. 1999a; Park 2018