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Table 2 Effects of different clove oil concentrations and temperatures on anesthesia time and recovery time of juvenile and adult red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara*

From: Anesthetic efficacy and physiological responses of clove oil on juvenile and adult red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akarra

Temperature (°C) Dose (ppm) Time (sec)
Juvenile Adult
Exposure Recovery Exposure Recovery
20 25 151 ± 17.2c 291 ± 23.5b 255 ± 15.4c 280 ± 21.7b
  50 103 ± 10.4b 273 ± 17.3b 163 ± 11.7b 271 ± 19.3b
  75 75 ± 10.3a 238 ± 16.5a 107 ± 9.5a 243 ± 11.5a
24 25 138 ± 9.3c 288 ± 21.8b 221 ± 15.6c 257 ± 20.3b
  50 91 ± 10.1b 256 ± 18.1a 123 ± 9.3b 232 ± 17.2a
  75 67 ± 9.4a 241 ± 15.7a 88 ± 6.2a 214 ± 15.1a
28 25 126 ± 10.5c 267 ± 24.9b 153 ± 10.5c 248 ± 21.5b
  50 83 ± 11.2b 273 ± 20.1b 94 ± 11.2b 219 ± 16.8b
  75 59 ± 7.9aA 229 ± 12.1a 71 ± 9.9a 83 ± 9.1a
  1. *Each value is mean ± standard deviation of triplicate independent experiments (n = 10). Different small letters indicate significant differences for the different clove oil dose at the same water temperature (P < 0.05), the same superscript letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05)