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Table 1 Stages of anesthesia and recovery of red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara, after exposing to clove oil*

From: Anesthetic efficacy and physiological responses of clove oil on juvenile and adult red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akarra

Stage Characteristic behavior
  Anesthesia
A1 Normal swimming; operculum movement and normal general movement
A2 Swimming speed slowed; rolling from side to side
A3 Partial loss of equilibrium; swimming erratically
A4 Complete loss of equilibrium; swimming perfectly inside-out; pectoral fin, pelvic fin, and dorsal fin movement stop
A5 Little sedation; anal fin and tail fin movement stop
A6 Perfect sedation; only operculum movement
A7 Operculum movement ceased
  Recovery
R1 Resume operculum movement
R2 Preferential movement of pectoral fin and tail fin
R3 Dorsal fin, pelvic fin, and anal fin movement
R4 Swimming perfectly inside-out
R5 Swimming erratically; redressing the balance
R6 Normal swimming; responsiveness to visual stimuli
  1. *Modified from Summerfelt and Smith (1990)