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Table 2 Various biological activities of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus component

From: Biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus): a review

Activities Extraction methods Active compounds Color Ref.
α-Glucosidase Organic solvent (80% MeOH) n-Hexane fraction (Unsaturated fatty acids) (Nguyen et al. 2011)
Anti-coagulation Hydrolysis (Diastase vera) Glycosaminoglycan (Yang et al. 2015b)
Hydrolysis (Diastase vera) Glycosaminoglycan (Yang et al. 2015a)
Anti-cancer Acid mucopolysaccharide (Lu et al. 2010)
Organic solvent (80% EtOH) CH2Cl2/EtOAc fraction Red (Park et al. 2011)
Organic solvent (70% EtOH) Extracts (Kim et al. 2017)
Anti-fungal activity Organic solvent (60% EtOH) n-BuoH fraction (Nortriterpene/triterpene glycosides) (Wang et al. 2012)
Anti-hyperlipidemic activity Hydrolysis (Papain) Polysaccharide (Liu et al. 2012b)
Anti-inflammation Organic solvent (MeOH) EtOAc fraction (Himaya et al. 2010)
Organic solvent (80% EtOH) EtOAc fraction Red (Park et al. 2011)
Anti-melanogenesis Organic solvent (80% EtOH) EtOAc fraction Red (Yoon et al. 2010)
Water/70% EtOH Adenosine/ethyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (Husni et al. 2011)
Organic solvent (65% EtOH) Extracts Red (Oh et al. 2017)
Anti-osteoclastogenesis Chloroform/methanol Fucan sulfates (Kariya et al. 2004)
Anti-oxidation Water/70% EtOH Crude saponin (Husni et al. 2009)
Hydrolysis (Flavourzyme) Gelatin (Wang et al. 2010)
Hydrolysis (Trypsin) Peptide (Zhou et al. 2012)
Hydrolysis (Pepsin) Collagen (Zhu et al. 2012)
Hydrolysis (Papain) Polysaccharide (Lui et al., 2012b)
McIIvaines buffer Peptide (Zheng et al. 2012)
Immunomodulatory effect Acid mucopolysaccharide (Song et al. 2013)
Water Protein-sulfated fucan complex (Cao et al. 2017)
Proliferative effect Hydrolysis (Pepsin/trypsin) Polysaccharide (Zhang et al. 2010b)
Hydrolysis (Pepsin/trypsin) Polysaccharide (Sheng et al. 2011)
Hydrolysis (Pepsin) Collagen Red (Park et al. 2012)
Neural related activities Hydrolysis (Pepsin/trypsin) Polysaccharide (Cui et al. 2016c)
Organic solvent (CHCl3/MeOH) Ganglioside (Kaneko et al. 2003)
Hydrolysis (Pepsin/trypsin) Polysaccharide (Cui et al. 2016a)
Hydrolysis (Pepsin/trypsin) Polysaccharide (Sheng et al. 2012)
Hydrolysis (Pepsin/trypsin) Polysaccharide (Zhang et al. 2010a)
Hydrolysis (Pepsin/trypsin) Polysaccharide/fucoidan/Heparin (Cui et al. 2016b)
Hydrolysis (Pepsin/trypsin) Polysaccharide (Cui et al. 2015)
Hydrolysis (Protease N Amano G) Chondroitin sulfate (Shida et al. 2017)