Open Access

Inhibitory effect of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria against histamine-forming bacteria isolated from Myeolchi-jeot

Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences201619:42

DOI: 10.1186/s41240-016-0040-x

Received: 6 September 2016

Accepted: 5 November 2016

Published: 9 December 2016

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to identify the histamine-forming bacteria and bacteriocin- producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Myeolchi-jeot according to sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the bacteriocin on the growth and histamine accumulation of histamine-forming bacteria, and to assess the physico-chemical properties of the bacteriocin. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, histamine-forming bacteria were identified as Bacillus licheniformis MCH01, Serratia marcescens MCH02, Staphylococcus xylosus MCH03, Aeromonas hydrophila MCH04, and Morganella morganii MCH05. The five LAB strains identified as Pediococcus acidilactici MCL11, Leuconostoc mesenteroides MCL12, Enterococcus faecium MCL13, Lactobacillus sakei MCL14, and Lactobacillus acidophilus MCL15 were found to produce an antibacterial compound with inhibitory activity against the tested histamine-producing bacteria. The inhibitory activity of these bacteriocins obtained from the five LAB remained stable after incubation at pH 4.0–8.0 and heating for 10 min at 80 °C; however, the bacteriocin activity was destroyed after treatment with papain, pepsin, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin, or trypsin. Meanwhile, these bacteriocins produced by the tested LAB strains also exhibited histamine-degradation ability. Therefore, these antimicrobial substances may play a role in inhibiting histamine formation in the fermented fish products and preventing seafood-related food-borne disease caused by bacterially generated histamine.

Keywords

Bacteriocin Histamine Lactic acid bacteria

Background

Myeolchi-jeot, a traditional Korean salted and fermented seafood, is made of anchovies (Engraulis japonicas) and is mostly used as an ingredient in Kimchi. Since proteins are broken down into precursor amino acids of biogenic amines through the action of digestive enzymes and microbes during the fermentation process, it contains relatively high concentrations of biogenic amines (Mah et al., 2002). According to their chemical structure, biogenic amines are classified into aliphatic (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine), aromatic (tyramine, phenlethylamine), and heterocyclic (histamine, tryptamine) (Santos, 1996). High doses of biogenic amines such as histamine (>500 mg/kg) and tyramine (100–800 mg/kg) contained mainly in fermented foods can cause adverse health effects to consumers (Joosten and Nuńez, 1996).

Histamine is the causative agent of scombroid poisoning which is often manifested by a wide variety of symptoms such as rash, urticarial, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramp, hypotension, localized inflammation, headache, palpitation, and severe respiratory distress (Taylor, 1986). Histamine is a basic nitrogenous compound formed mainly through the decarboxylation of histidine by exogenous decarboxylases released from the many different bacterial species associated with salted and fermented seafoods including Myeolchi-jeot (An and Ben-Gigirey, 1998). In Myeolchi-jeot, Bacillus licheniformis has been known to raise levels of histamine in retail canned anchovies during the storage at an ambient temperature Mah and Hwang (2003). The presence of histidine decarboxylase activity has been described in different microbial groups such as seafood-borne bacteria, spoilage microorganisms, and lactic acid bacteria (López-Sabater et al., 1994).

Fortunately, in recent years, some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to degrade biogenic amine through the production of amine oxidase enzymes or antimicrobial substances (Garciz-Ruiz et al., 2011; Joosten and Nuńez, 1996). LAB that are usually designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status in foods can also exert a biopreservative effect against other microorganisms as a result of competition for nutrients and/or of the production of antagonistic compounds such as organic acids, diacetyl, acetoin, hydrogen peroxide, antibiotics, and bacteriocins (Schillinger et al., 1996). Among anti-microbial metabolites, bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized and defined as extracelluarly released peptides or protein molecules produced by specific bacteria during the primary phase of growth, though antibiotics are usually secondary metabolites (Zacharof and Lovitt, 2012). Brillet et al. (2005) has shown that bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium divergens V41 can be used as a biopreservative to inhibit the growth Listeria monocytogenes in cold smoked salmon; therefore, bacteriocins can be applied in the seafood industry for extension of shelf life as natural preservatives against pathogens and food spoilage.

In particular, outgrowth of histamine producer Lactobacillus buchneri St2A was almost completely inhibited by treatment of bacteriocin-producing enterococci and Lactococcus lactis strain as fermentation starters (Joosten and Nuńez, 1996). Tabanelli et al. (2014) reported that bacteriocin forming lactococci strains were able to reduce the growth extent and histamine accumulation of Streptococcus thermophilus PRI60. The studies reported previously indicate that the applications of bacteriocins in food industries can extend shelf life of foods, inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens during the manufacture of food, prevent formation of toxic substances by harmful bacteria, ameliorate the economic losses due to food spoilage, and reduce the application of chemical preservatives (Gálvez et al., 2007).

The objectives of this study were to (1) identify the histamine-forming bacteria and bacteriocin-producing LAB isolated from Myeolchi-jeot according to sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, (2) evaluate the inhibitory effects of the bacteriocin on the growth and histamine accumulation of histamine-forming bacteria, and (3) assess the physico-chemical properties of the bacteriocin.

Methods

Isolation and identification of histamine-forming bacteria and LAB

Five samples of salted-fermented anchovy were obtained from retail stores in Busan and aseptically collected for these experiments. Each sample (50 g) was diluted with sterile peptone water (450 mL) and homogenized at high speed for 2 min in stomacher. The decimal serial dilutions of the homogenates were then subsequently prepared using a sterile peptone water, and 1.0-mL aliquots of the dilutes were inoculated into brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (BD Difco Co., Sparks, MD, USA) and incubated for 48 h at 37 °C. To isolate histamine-forming bacteria, each strain collected from the plates was sub-cultured for 48 h at 35 °C in decarboxylating broth contained l-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA, 1 g/L) and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (Sigma-Aldrich, 1 mg/L) according to the method of Bover-Cid and Holzapfel (1999) with minor modifications. The cell culture (0.1 mL) was spread on trypticase soy agar (TSA, BD Difco Co.) supplemented with 2.0% (w/v) l-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate. After incubation under anaerobic conditions for 4 days at 35 °C (Anoxomat system, MART Co., Netherland), the colonies with blue or purple color on the plates were considered as histamine-forming bacteria. Meanwhile, to distinguish lactic acid-producing bacteria from salted-fermented anchovy, the homogenized sample was spread directly onto the surface of MRS (BD Difco Co.) agar plates containing 1% CaCO3. After incubation under aerobic conditions for 48 h at 37 °C, the colonies surrounded by a clear zone were randomly selected from the plates, purified on MRS agar, and examined histamine production as the abovementioned. The identity of histamine-forming isolates was confirmed by using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (Chen et al., 2008). Amplification of the isolates was performed with the universal primers UNI-L (5′-AGAGTTTGATCATGGCTCAG-3′) and UNI-R (5′-GTGTGACGGGCGGTGTGTAC-3′). Bacterial cells were cultivated in BHI broth at 37 °C with shaking overnight and centrifuged at 7000×g for 10 min. After washing, the cell pellets were resuspended in PBS (pH 7.0) and lysed by 20% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). After the boiling process for 20 min at 85 °C, the cell debris was removed by centrifugation (13,000×g, 5 min, 4 °C). DNA in the supernatant was precipitated by addition of 70% ethanol and used as template DNA for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR amplification was carried out with a reaction mixture consisting of 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.3), 50 mM KCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 20 pmol of each primer, 0.2 mM deoxynucleotide triphosphates, 0.5 U of Taq DNA polymerase (Applied Biosystem, Foster City, CA, USA), and template DNA (10 ng). Cycle conditions were an initial denaturation for 4 min at 94 °C, followed by 35 cycles of 30 s denaturation at 94 °C, 30 s annealing at 55 °C, 1 min primer extension at 72 °C, followed by a final extension for 7 min at 72 °C in a PCR Thermal Cycler (Bio-Rad Laboratories Ltd., Canada). To identify the LAB isolates which do not produce histamine, the universal primer used for identification of LAB was 27F (5′-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3′) and 1492RF (5′-GGTTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3′). Thermocycling was carried out using denaturation step at 94 °C for 1 min, annealing at 55 °C for 1 min, and extension at 72 °C for 2 min, for a total of 30 cycles. Amplicons were visualized on a 1.5% agarose gel staining with ethidium bromide to confirm successful amplification and then PCR product was purified using a QIAquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA). The amplified DNA was directly sequenced with a DNA sequencer (ABI Prism® 3730 Avant Genetic Analyzer, Applied Biosystem) and sequence similarity searching was performed using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Basic Local Align Search Tool (BLAST).

Preparation of bacteriocin solution and determination of bacteriocin activity

To prepare the bacteriocin solution of the LAB strains, the culture extracts of the isolated LAB were obtained after 24-h incubation at 37 °C in MRS broth. The cultures were centrifuged at 7000×g for 10 min at 4 °C. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) was then adjusted with 1 N of NaOH to pH 6.5 to avoid effect of acid, treated with catalase (200 U/mL) for 30 min at 25 °C to remove hydrogen peroxide, and filtered through a 0.22-μm membrane filter (Millipore Corp., USA). Crude bacteriocin was precipitated from the CFS by 50% (w/v) ammonium sulfate and the precipitates were kept overnight at 4 °C with gentle stirring. After centrifugation (at 12,000×g for 30 min at 4 °C), the resulting pellets were dissolved in 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) and dialyzed overnight at 4 °C against distilled water using dialysis membrane (molecular weight cutoff, 1,000; Spectrum Labs., Gardena, CA, USA). The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin was assayed by microtiter plate assay (Holo et al., 1991), using histamine-forming bacteria as an indicator strain. In brief, each well of the microtiter plate (BD Falcon, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) was filled with 800 μL of BHI broth, 100 μL of a twofold serial dilution of the crude bacteriocin solution or PBS (pH 7.0), and 100 μL of cell cultures (1.0 × 105 CFU/mL) of indicator organism grown in BHI broth. The plates were then placed in an aerobic incubator for 12 h at 37 °C. The extent of growth inhibition was measured spectrophotometrically at 600 nm using microplate reader (Bioteck, Inc., Korea). One bacteriocin unit (BU/mL) was arbitrarily defined as the reciprocal of the highest dilution inhibiting the 50% growth of the indicator strain compared to the control.

Inhibitory effect of the bacteriocin on histamine accumulation

Histamine-forming bacteria isolated from the samples were seeded in TSB enriches with l-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (0.5%) and pyridoxal-HCl (0.0005%) and incubated at 35 °C for 24 h. The cultures (1 mL) were transferred to test tubes containing the same broth (9 mL) and bacteriocin solution (100 and 200 BU/mL) from the LAB isolates and incubated for 24 h at 35 °C. These broth cultures were centrifuged (7000×g, 10 min, 4 °C) and filtered through a 0.22-μm membrane filter. The histamine content in the cultures was performed according to the procedure modified by Eerola et al. (1993) and Mah and Hwang (2003) using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). Briefly, 1 mL of the cell cultures or standard histamine solutions was added to 9 mL of 0.4 M perchloric acid (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) and vigorously mixed. The mixture was then centrifuged at 3000×g for 10 min and the supernatant was filtered through Whatman paper No. 1. The samples (1 mL) were mixed with 2 M sodium hydroxide (200 μL) and saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (300 μL). Subsequently, the samples were added with 2 mL of 10 mg/mL dansyl chloride (Sigma-Aldrich) solution prepared in acetone and the mixture solution was incubated at 40 °C for 45 min. Residual dansyl chloride was removed by addition of 25% ammonium hydroxide (100 μL). After incubation for 30 min at room temperature, the volume of mixture was adjusted to 5 mL with acetonitrile. Finally, the dansyl derivatives were centrifuged at 2500×g for 5 min, and the supernatant was filtered through a 0.22-μm filter. A Nova-Pak C18 column (150 mm × 3.9 mm, Waters, Milford, MA, USA) was used for the separation of histamine, and acetonitrile (solvent B) as the mobile phases at the flow rate of 1 mL/min. The sample volume injected was 20 μL, and the eluted sample was monitored at 254 nm. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD) and analyzed with SPSS program (ver. 12.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Then data comparisons were performed with paired t test and differences were considered statistically significant when P values were <0.05.

Physical and chemical properties of the bacteriocn

The effect of pH on antimicrobial activity of the crude bacteriocin was determined by incubating the crude bacteriocin in various buffers [0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 2.0–5.0), 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0–7.0), and Tris HCl (pH 8.0–10.0)] with pH ranging from 2 to 10 for 24 h at 37 °C. To evaluate the heat stability, the crude bacteriocin was heated for 10 min at 80, 100, and 120 °C. Sensitivity of the crude bacteriocin to proteolytic enzymes was examined by incubation of the sample for 1 h at 37 °C after treatment with the following enzymes (1 mg/mL): proteinase K in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5), trypsin in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), pepsin in 100 mM Trish-HCl (pH 3.0), papain in 50 sodium phosphate acetate (pH 5.0), and α-chymotrypsin in 20 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0). Following incubation, the enzymes were heat inactivated for 3 min at 100 °C. The residual bacteriocin activity was determined by the microtiter plate assay as described earlier. In addition, the bacteriocin treated under each physical or chemical condition were added to TSB containing l-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (0.5%) and pyridoxal-HCl (0.0005%) and inoculated with initial population of approximately 1.0 × 105 CFU/mL of histamine-forming bacteria. After incubation for 24 h at 35 °C, histamine levels in the cultures were analyzed using HPLC described above. All the experiments were done in triplicate.

Results and discussion

Isolation and identification of histamine-forming bacteria and bacteriocin-producing LAB

The results of the identification of histamine-forming bacteria and bacteriocin-producing LAB found in Myeolchi-jeot are presented in Table 1. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, histamine-forming bacteria were identified as B. licheniformis MCH01, Serratia marcescens MCH02, Staphylococcus xylosus MCH03, Aeromonas hydrophila MCH04, and Morganella morganii MCH05, with 98.0–99.9% similarity to the GenBank database. Meanwhile, 53 LAB strains isolated from Myeolchi-jeot were screened for the inhibition activity against histamine-forming bacteria, using a microtiter plate assay. Out of these strains, five strains (9.4%) presented 98.3–100.0% similarity with the 16S rRNA sequences reported for Pediococcus acidilactici MCL11, Leuconostoc mesenteroides MCL12, Enterococcus faecium MCL13, Lactobacillus sakei MCL14, and Lactobacillus acidophilus MCL15 in the GenBank database.
Table 1

Identification of histamine-forming bacteria and lactic acid bacteria isolated from Myeolchi-jeot using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis

Histamine-forming bacteria

LAB

Strain

Accession no. related strain in NCBI

Similarity (%)

Identification

Strain

Accession no. related strain in NCBI

Similarity (%)

Identification

MCH01

EF433410

98.6

Bacillus licheniformis

MCL11

EF059986

99.9

Pediococcus acidilactici

MCH02

EF194094

99.7

Serratia marcescens

MCL12

KF673541

100.0

Leuconostoc mesenteroides

MCH03

EU266748

99.9

Staphylococcus xylosus

MCL13

EU887814

99.2

Enterococcus faecium

MCH04

AY538658

99.0

Aeromonas hydrophila

MCL14

AB650590

98.3

Lactobacillus sakei

MCH05

AB680150

98.0

Morganella morganii

MCL15

KT222158

99.5

Lactobacillus acidophilus

Several fish species including tuna, mackerel, sardines, and anchovy contain high levels of free histidine in their tissues. These fishes subjected to temperature abuse after the catch and before consumption can cause formation of histamine from histidine by bacterial histidine decarboylases (Visciano et al., 2012). Histamine-rich foods may cause food intolerance in sensitive individuals and histamine poisoning that is a common seafood-borne disease causing various symptoms such as rash, nausea, vomiting, fever, diarrhea, headache, itching, flushing, and abdominal cramps (Taylor, 1986). Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Hafnia alvei, and Vibrio alginolyticus and enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from fish and described as the predominant histamine-forming bacteria (Shalaby, 1996; Kung et al., 2009). Moreover, there have been several reports describing amino acid decarboxylation activity of different genera, such as Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Bacillus, Cedecea, Citrobacter, Clostridium, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Plesiomonas, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella, and Vibrio, and of some lactic acid bacteria (Kim et al., 2009). Our data are partially consistent with results reported by Guan et al. (2011) and Kung et al. (2009). The commonly isolated genera from Myeolchi-jeot were Microbacterium sp., Kocuria sp., Vibrio sp., Psychrobacter sp., Halomonas sp., Brevibacillus sp., Bacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Tetragenococcus sp., Weissella sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. (Guan et al., 2011). Among bacterial communities in Jeotgal, M. morganii, K. pneumoniae, and H. alvei have been known as the strains causing scombroid poisoning (often called “histamine poisoning”) (Kung et al., 2009). In addition, Staphylococcus epidermidis obtained during the ripening of anchovies showed a powerful histamine-forming activity (Hernández-Herrero et al. 1999).

Bacteriocin activity of the isolates against histamine-forming bacteria

As shown in Table 2, the five LAB strains isolated from Myeolchi-jeot were found to produce an antibacterial compound with inhibitory activity against histamine-producing bacteria such as B. licheniformis MCH01, S. marcescens MCH02, S. xylosus MCH03, A. hydrophila MCH04, or M. moarganii MCH05. The crude bacteriocin of P. acidilactici MCL11 inhibited the growth of B. licheniformis MCH01 and S. xylosus MCH03. In particular, P. acidilactici MCL11 showed the strongest antimicrobial activity (512 BU/mL) against S. xylosus MCH03. The antimicrobial compound produced by L. mesenteroides MCL12 (128 BU/mL) and L. sakei MCL14 (256 BU/mL) strains showed activity against S. marcescens MCH02. The crude bacteriocin produced by E. faecium MCL13 showed an antimicrobial activity of 64 and 256 BU/mL against S. xylosus MCH03 and A. hydrophila MCH04, respectively. L. acidophilus MCL15 was also found to have a bacteriocin activity against A. hydrophila MCH04, which was weaker than that of E. faecium MCL13.
Table 2

Antibacterial activity of the bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria against histamine-forming bacteria isolated from Myeolchi-jeot

Indicator organism

Bacteriocin activity (BU/mL)

LAB

Pediococcus acidilactici MCL11

Leuconostoc mesenteroides MCL12

Enterococcus faecium MCL13

Lactobacillus sakei MCL14

Lactobacillus acidophilus MCL15

Bacillus licheniformis MCH01

256

ND

ND

ND

ND

Serratia marcescens MCH02

ND

128

ND

256

ND

Staphylococcus xylosus MCH03

512

ND

64

ND

ND

Aeromonas hydrophila MCH04

ND

ND

256

ND

64

Morganella morganii MCH05

ND

ND

ND

128

ND

ND not detected

Joosten and Nuńez (1996) reported that the bacteriocin-producing enterococci and L. lactis strains completely inhibited the outgrowth of histamine producer L. buchneri St2A; therefore, no histamine formation was detected in the cheeses made with bacteriocin-producing starters. Our results are in agreement with the findings of previous studies. Gómez-Sala et al. (2015) demonstrated that analysis of 1245 LAB isolates obtained from fish, seafood, and fish products showed that 197 exerted direct antimicrobial activity against 20 spoilage and food-borne pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, LAB isolates selected on the basis of their direct antimicrobial activity were identified as E. faecium, E. faecalis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, L. sakei subsp. carnosus, L. sakei subsp. sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, and L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris based on 16S rDNA sequences. L. mesenteroides HK4, HK5, and HK11 and Streptococcus salivarius HK8 strains isolated from Jeotgal were also chosen by preliminary bacteriocin activity test (Cho and Do, 2006). L. lactis subsp. lactis VR84 produced nisin Z induced the death of the histamine producing strain S. thermophilus PRI60. However, L. lactis subsp. lactis EG46-produced lacticin 481 did not show a lethal action against PRI60 strain, but were able to reduce its growth extent and histamine accumulation (Tabanelli et al., 2014). Furthermore, the bacteriocin produced by L. casei was able to inhibit the activity of the histamine-forming bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp., Proteus morganii, and Micrococcus sp. (Nugrahani et al., 2016). S. xylosus no. 0538 obtained from a salted and fermented anchovy (Myeolchi-jeot) possessed not only the greater capability to degrade histamine but a detectable ability to degrade tyramine as well. In addition, this strain was also found to produce the bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance(s) and have the highest antimicrobial activity against B. licheniformis strains defined as amine producers. S. xylosus no. 0538 exhibited significantly greater ability to degrade histamine, degrading histamine to about 62–68% of its initial concentration within 24 h (Mah and Hwang, 2009).

Reduction of histamine accumulation by the bacteriocin of LAB

As shown in Table 3, the five histamine-producing bacteria isolated from Myeolchi-jeot had strong ability to produce histamine. Among the tested strains, the highest level of histamine (2869.4 ± 49.0 mg/L) formation was observed for the M. morganii MCH05 strain. In addition, the concentration of histamine produced by S. xylosus MCH03 (2257 ± 30.7 mg/L) strain was higher than that produced by B. licheniformis MCH01 (1699.3 ± 35.6 mg/L), S. marcescens MCH02 (1987.2 ± 27.8 mg/L), and A. hydrophila MCH04 (1655.5 ± 41.2 mg/L). Meanwhile, the treatment with 100 and 200 BU/mL of the bacteriocin obtained from the tested LAB significantly reduced the histamine content of the five histamine-producing bacteria. After 24 h of incubation in the presence of the bacteriocin (200 BU/mL) of P. acidilactici MCL11, histamine contents of B. licheniformis MCL01 and S. xylosus MCH03 were reduced by 49 and 27%, respectively, as compared to the control (without bacteriocin). The histamine accumulation of S. xylosus MCH03 and A. hydrophilia MCH04 at 24 h of incubation in the presence of the bacteriocin of E. faecium MCL13 was significantly inhibited compared with the control group. The bacteriocin obtained from L. sakei MCL14 was effective in degrading histamine produced by S. marcescens MCH02 and M. morganii MCH05 strains. These bacteriocins produced by L. mesenteroides MCL12 and L. acidophilus MCL15 strains also exhibited excellent histamine degradation ability. The histamine degradation ability of these bacteriocins increased in a concentration-dependent manner. The reduction of histamine content by treatment with these bacteriocins may be related to antagonistic activity of these antibacterial substances against histamine-producing bacteria.
Table 3

Inhibitory effect of the bacteriocin from the tested LAB on histamine accumulation of histamine-forming bacteria isolated from Myeolchi-jeot

Histamine-forming bacteria

Histamine content (mg/L)

Control

Bacteriocin-producing LAB

MCL11

MCL12

MCL13

MCL14

MCL15

Bacteriocin concentration (BU/mL)

 

100

200

100

200

100

200

100

200

100

200

Bacillus licheniformis MCH01

1699.3 ± 35.6

1086.9 ± 31.2*

863.2 ± 22.3*

1668.4 ± 45.4

1681.5 ± 24.8

1679.5 ± 28.1

1673.2 ± 15.9

1667.3 ± 40.0

1702.5 ± 12.4

1671.5 ± 23.6

1715.2 ± 39.1

Serratia marcescens MCH02

1987.2 ± 27.8

1979.1 ± 16.3

1995.8 ± 20.5

1423.5 ± 14.1*

1016.3 ± 10.7*

1964.3 ± 30.5

1990.5 ± 9.9

1619.1 ± 9.8*

1426.3 ± 20.4*

1964.0 ± 13.8

1980.5 ± 34.1

Staphylococcus xylosus MCH03

2257.4 ± 30.7

1805.8 ± 21.7*

1653.7 ± 10.1*

2234.1 ± 13.2

2294.0 ± 17.5

754.3 ± 12.5*

518.5 ± 16.1*

2219.8 ± 29.4

2273.4 ± 26.0

2281.3 ± 41.2

2270.3 ± 11.6

Aeromonas hydrophila MCH04

1655.5 ± 41.2

1603.8 ± 30.8

1682.3 ± 25.5

1690.3 ± 33.4

1682.5 ± 26.1

1518.2 ± 17.6*

1305.8 ± 20.4*

1633.9 ± 8.7

1690.5 ± 22.8

909.7 ± 11.4*

825.5 ± 18.8*

Morganella morganii MCH05

2869.4 ± 49.0

2805.3 ± 10.2

2811.5 ± 20.7

2897.0 ± 36.1

2815.9 ± 7.5

2900.5 ± 16.4

2822.4 ± 13.8

1915.4 ± 30.7*

1688.5 ± 21.2*

2809.9 ± 18.4

2894.6 ± 33.8

Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) from three independent experiments

*Significantly differ (P < 0.05) from the control group by paired t test

Prolific histamine formers in Indian anchovy were identified as M. morganii, P. vulgaris, and E. aerogenes, and produced high histamine content of 104.1–203.0 mg/100 mL (Rodtong et al., 2005). Kim et al. (2009) noted that the histamine contents in fish, squid, and shellfish samples remarkably increased up to 36.6–2123.9 mg/kg after 24 h of storage at 25 °C, while the contents began to gradually increase after 2–3 days of storage at 4–10 °C. The dominant microbial group in these samples was enterobacteria throughout the storage period. In our results, the histamine-producing isolates from Myeolchi-jeot were identified as B. licheniformis, S. marcescens, S. xylosus, A. hydrophila, and M. morganii and these strains were capable of producing histamine in the range of 1655.5 to 2869.4 mg/L. Consequently, in raw fish, histamine content is linked to the type of histamine-forming bacteria, the type of seafood, and temperature/time storage conditions (Visciano et al., 2012).

Regarding to the inhibition of histamine formation, Zaman et al. (2011) observed that Staphylococcus carnosus FS19 and Bacillus amyloiquefaciens FS05 isolated from fish sauce which possess amine oxidase activity were found to be effective in reducing biogenic amine accumulation, and histamine concentration was reduced by 27.7 and 15.4% by FS19 and FS05, respectively, which is in disagreement with our observations that the LAB isolates tested in our study showed histamine degradation capacity by production of the antimicrobial substance such as bacteriocin. The histamine levels produced by B. licheniformis MCH01, S. marcescens MCH02, S. xylosus MCH03, A. hydrophila MCH04, and M. morganii MCH05 were reduced by 21–77% in the presence of the bacteriocin (200 BU/mL) obtained from the tested LAB.

Effect of enzymes, pH, and temperature on antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin

These bacteriocins obtained from P. acidilactici MCL11 and L. sakei MCL14 remained stable after incubation at pH 4.0–8.0. However, no the bacteriocin activity was recorded under extremely acidic condition (pH 2.0). The bacteriocin of L. mesenteroides MCL12 and E. faecium MCL13 remained stable after incubation for 24 h at pH from 4.0 to 10.0, but not when kept at pH 2.0. The bacteriocin of L. acidophilus MCL15 remained active after 24 h of exposure to pH values ranging from 3.0 to 9.0 at 37 °C. The activity of the bacteriocin produced by P. acidilactici MCL11, L. mesenteroides MCL12, and E. faecium MCL13 remained almost completely after heating for 10 min at 80 °C; however, the bacteriocin activity of these strains was partially destroyed after 10 min at 100 °C. In particular, the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium MCL13 was inactivated after 10 min at 120 °C, whereas the inhibitory activity of L. sakei MCL14 was 100% stable to heat treatment at 100 °C for up to 10 min, and the antimicrobial activity of L. acidophilus MCL15 was not affected by the heat treatment for 10 min at 120 °C. The activity of the bacteriocin produced by P. acidilactici MCL11 was destroyed after treatment with papain, pepsin, and proteinase K, but not when treated with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin. However, the treatment with papain and proteinase K had no effect on the activity of the bacteriocin of L. mesenteroides MCL12. Treatment of the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium MCL13 with papain and trypsin did not result in any activity loss, but the bacteriocin activity partially inactivated by treatment with pepsin, proteinase K, and α-chymotrypsin. Meanwhile, the bacteriocin of L. sakei MCL14 was destroyed by all the proteolytic enzymes tested such as papain, pepsin, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin. Complete inactivation in antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin produced by L. acidophilus MC15 was observed after treatment with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin. The histamine-degrading ability of the bacteriocin inactivated by some physico-chemical treatments was significantly reduced compared to the control group (Table 4).
Table 4

Effects of pH, temperature, and proteolytic enzymes on the antibacterial activity and histamine-degrading ability of the bacteriocin from the tested LAB

Treatment

Bacteriocin-producing LAB

MCL11a

MCL12b

MCL13c

MCL14d

MCL15e

BA (BU/mL)

HC (mg/L)

BA (BU/mL)

HC (mg/L)

BA (BU/mL)

HC (mg/L)

BA (BU/mL)

HC (mg/L)

BA (BU/mL)

HC (mg/L)

C

T

C

T

C

T

C

T

C

T

C

T

C

T

C

T

C

T

C

T

pH

2.0

512

ND

1156.4 ± 22.1

2251.4 ± 16.9

128

16

1217.5 ± 30.5

1898.2 ± 16.9

256

128

1236.3 ± 15.4

1476.2 ± 24.2

256

ND

1367.5 ± 11.8

1972.5 ± 13.5

64

32

926.5 ± 37.8

1325.2 ± 11.3

3.0

128

1715.2 ± 26.5

32

1853.6 ± 15.2

256

1204.3 ± 18.2

64

1707.2 ± 21.3

64

1161.4 ± 19.2

4.0–8.0

512

1208.2 ± 30.2

128

1198.5 ± 47.1

256

1247.0 ± 40.3

256

1388.2 ± 16.7

64

1185.7 ± 21.2

9.0

256

1619.5 ± 22.5

128

1219.3 ± 38.2

256

1203.4 ± 32.1

128

1571.4 ± 22.4

64

1201.2 ± 34.2

10.0

64

1906.1 ± 30.7

128

1199.6 ± 30.8

256

1216.4 ± 25.4

128

1586.1 ± 13.7

32

1334.0 ± 40.2

Heating

80 °C, 10 min

512

1178.9 ± 42.2

128

1203.5 ± 13.2

256

1207.3 ± 19.3

256

1375.1 ± 48.8

64

1194.4 ± 27.1

100 °C, 10 min

128

1690.5 ± 30.4

64

1688.3 ± 14.5

32

1598.3 ± 15.4

256

1390.1 ± 50.2

64

1203.8 ± 13.6

120 °C, 10 min

128

1709.2 ± 24.7

64

1674.2 ± 15.8

ND

1708.5 ± 33.6

64

1698.2 ± 20.2

64

1208.9 ± 22.5

Enzyme

Papain

ND

2268.1 ± 22.4

128

1228.5 ± 16.7

256

1200.3 ± 14.2

64

1671.3 ± 16.2

16

1526.3 ± 40.0

Pepsin

32

1998.1 ± 13.2

ND

2015.0 ± 20.7

32

1602.2 ± 27.1

32

1776.2 ± 13.5

16

1533.7 ± 9.0

Proteinase K

64

1922.2 ± 25.8

128

1200.4 ± 41.7

64

1579.2 ± 30.5

64

1726.3 ± 40.0

32

1329.2 ± 27.5

α-Chymotrypsin

512

1047.1 ± 24.1

32

1844.6 ± 23.1

128

1399.5 ± 23.0

64

1715.3 ± 33.0

ND

1676.0 ± 48.2

Trypsin

512

1188.2 ± 12.6

64

1680.5 ± 22.7

256

1214.1 ± 20.1

128

1599.2 ± 10.7

ND

1673.0 ± 33.1

BA bacteriocin activity, HC histamine content, C bacteriocin before physico-chemical treatment, T bacteriocin after physico-chemical treatment

aActivity of P. acidilactici MCL11 against S. xylosus MCH03

bActivity of L. mesenteroides MCL12 against S. marcescens MCH02

cActivity of E. faecium MCL13 against S. xylosus MCH03

dActivity of L. sakei MCL14 against A. hydrophila MCH04

eActivity of L. acidophilus MCL15 against M. morganii MCH05

The bacteriocin activity of P. acidilactici MCL11 was not affected by treatment with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin, but was lost after incubation with proteolytic enzymes such as papain, pepsin, and proteinase K. This bacteriocin was stable at up to 80 °C for 10 min and was in the pH range of 4.0–8.0. This is in disagreement with results recorded for pediocin SA-1. Pediocin SA-1 from P. acidilactici NRRLB5627 was inhibitory to several food spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens such as Listeria spp. and found to be very effective against the anaerobic Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium thiaminolyticum (Papagianni and Anastasiadou, 2009). This bacteriocin was heat stable for up to 60 min at 121 °C, not impaired even following incubation at 30 °C for 1 week at pH values ranging between 3.0 and 12.0, and found to be resistant to treatment with trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, and papain, but not to proteinase K (Anastasiadou et al., 2008).

The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides MCL12 showed slight resistance to proteolytic enzymes such as α-chymotrypsin and trypsin. Treatment of this bacteriocin with papain and proteinase K had no effect on activity. The activity of this bacteriocin did not decrease after heat treatment at 80 °C for 10 min and the stability of the antimicrobial activity was observed at pH range of 4.0 to 10.0. Characteristics of the bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides MCL12 were widely different from those of the mesentericin Y105. Mesentericin Y105, the bacteriocin from L. mesenteroides, had a narrow inhibitory spectrum limited to Listeria genus. Neither the Gram-negative and other Gram-positive indicator bacteria nor the related LAB species were inhibited when tested by the well-diffusion assay. This bacteriocin exhibited excellent stability under heating and acidic conditions. However, all of the proteolytic enzymes such as pronase, proteinase K, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin totally inhibited the antimicrobial activity of this bacteriocin (Héchard et al., 1992).

The bacteriocin activity of E. faecium MCL13 was stable the pH range between 3.0 and 10.0. However, a reduction in the activity was observed when the bacteriocin was exposed to 100 °C for 10 min. The bacteriocin activity was not affected by the presence of papain and trypsin. Unlike our results, the bacteriocins produced by the E. faecium strain showed a broader spectrum of activity against indicator strains of Enterococcus spp., Listeria spp., Clostridium spp., and Propionibacterium spp. This bactercioin was inactivated by α-chymotrypsin, proteinase K, trypsin, pronase, pepsin, and papain, but not by lipase, lysozyme, and catalase. The bacteriocin was heat stable and displayed highest activity at neutral pH (Toit et al., 2000).

Jiang et al. (2012) reported that sakacin LSJ618 produced by the strain L. sakei LSJ618 exhibited inhibitory activity against food-spoiling bacteria and food-borne pathogens, including the Gram-positive L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina spp., Micrococcus luteus, and the Gram-negative Proteus spp. and Escherichia coli, but not against most of the LAB tested. This bacteriocin was completely inactivated by pepsin, papain, trypsin, and lipase, was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0, and was heat resistant (30 min at 121 °C), which is partially in agreement with our observations. The bacteriocin of L. sakei MCL14 retained their activity at pH 4.0–8.0 and was thermally stable over a wide temperature range up to 100 °C for 10 min. Also, the bacteriocin activity was unstable after treatment with all the proteolytic enzymes like papain, pepsin, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin.

The activity of the bacteriocin produced by L. acidophilus MCL15 was stable a pH range between 2.0 and 10.0, and remained constant after heating at 80, 100, and 120 °C for 10 min. However, the bacteriocin activity was destroyed or diminished after treatment with proteolytic enzymes such as papain, pepsin, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin. The same results were recorded for the bacteriocin of L. acidophilus IBB 801. Acidophilin 801 obtained from L. acidophilus IBB 801 strain displayed a narrow inhibitory spectrum, being active particularly towards closely related lactobacilli and two Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including E. coli Row and Salmonella panama 1467, whereas acidolin and acidophilin produced by L. acidophilus strains showed a wide inhibitory spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of acidophilin 801 was insensitive to catalase but sensitive to proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin, proteinase K, and pronase, heat-stable (30 min at 121 °C), and maintained in a wide pH range (pH 3.0–10.0) (Zamfir et al., 1999).

Conclusion

In conclusion, these bacteriocins produced from the LAB isolates (P. acidilactici MCL11, L. mesenteroides MCL12, E. faecium MCL13, L. sakei MCL14, and L. acidophilus MCL15) may be a useful as a food biopreservative for controlling microbial deterioration, enhancing the hygienic quality, and extending the shelf-life of fish and seafood products. Notably, these antimicrobial substances may play a role in inhibiting histamine formation in the fermented fish products and preventing seafood-related food-borne disease caused by bacterially-generated histamine.

Abbreviations

LAB: 

lactic acid bacteria

B.

licheniformis Bacillus licheniformis

S.

marcescens Serratia marcescens

S.

xylosus Staphylococcus xylosus

A.

hydrophila Aeromonas hydrophila

M.

morganii Morganella morganii

P.

acidilactici Pediococcus acidilactici

L.mesenteroides

Leuconostoc mesenteroides

E.

faecium Enterococcus faecium

L.

sakei Lactobacillus sakei

L.

acidophilus Lactobacillus acidophilus

GRAS: 

generally recognized as safe

CFS: 

cell-free supernatant

BU: 

bacteriocin unit

K.

pneumonia Klebsiella pneumonia

H.

alvei Hafnia alvei

P.

vulgaris Proteus vulgaris

E.

aerogenes Enterobacter aerogenes

L.

buchneri Lactobacillus buchneri

L.

sakei Lactobacillus sakei

L.

lactis Lactococcus lactis

S.

thermophilus Streptococcus thermophilus

L.

monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes

E.

coli Escherichia coli

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the technical assistance provided by Lee Jong-Gab Professor.

Funding

This Research was supported by the Tongmyong University Research.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The author declares that he/she has no competing interests.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Tongmyong University

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